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This is an old revision of HY235LTWeek4 made by AjishiGai on 2019-02-13 11:50:33.

 

The Great Leap Forward


China in the Soviet Sphere
Central topics for studying early history of PRC are economic policy and relationship with SU.
Early PRC Domestic Campaigns and the First Five Year Plan
The early period saw intervention in K & intro of domestic three-antis and five-antis as means to clamp down on capitalists & class enemies.

In 1953, intro of first 5-year plan was done. This put emphasis on building up of heavy industry in line w/ Sov model of dev & increasing interest in radicalization of rural policy.

There was some debate w/in the party about the speed of reform: In the end, the latter pair was able to win the debate in 1954 because Gao made the error of trying to win Sov support. This made Gao look like a puppet and led to his fall from grace.

Honeymoon of S-Sov Relations under Khruschev
This episode did not indicate problems in S-Sov rels. Instead, the time was the peak of history of alliance.

Better relations were assisted by the death of Stalin in 1953 and the emergence of Khrushchev as Sov leader in 1954.
1954 saw the start of exchange over nuclear dev and other important infrastructure projects. The two states worked together during Geneva conf. In addition, Sovs were supportive when Mao decided in 1954 to raise tensions in Taiwan Straits. Moreover, high levvel of PRC intervention in the domestic affairs of DPRK and DRV was approved by Moscow.

Seeds of the Split: the Secret Speech
Rels began to change with Khruschev speech (“Secret Speech”) to the 20th CPSU Congress in Jan 1956 in which Khgruschev denounced many of Stalin’s political methods. This is often sited as the start of Sino-Sov split due to argument that Mao was outraged by the denunciation of Stalin and Khruschev’s support for peaceful coexistence.

The content of the speech probably did alarm Mao, as well as its lack of prior consultation, but the speech was primarily important in other ways. Most importantly, it stressed that there was more than one way to reach socialism. This was liberation for Mao as it meant he no longer needed to rigidly follow the Sov model, as well as Sov no longer were predominant in socialist world.

Mao’s hopes were encapsulated in the “Ten Great Relationships” speech in 1956. Tjhis called for China to follow the path of socialism more suited to Chinese conditions.

However, the consequences of Khruschev’s speech in E. Europe caused problems for Mao. Mao supported Polish bid for greater freedom but wanted Hungary curbed. Events in E. Europe encouraged Mao in 1957 to launch “100 Flowers” campaign. There is hgphical debate about whether this was designed to encourage genuihne debate to refresh links b/w the party or the people OR a cynical device to flush out bourgeois elements before CCP moved in more radical directions.

Public criticism went further than expected w/ result that 300,000 purged in anti-rightist campaign in 1957, Mao probably did have some genuine intention initially but when it turned out as It did Mao’s poisition was weakened.

At this stage, Sino-Sov rels were still good. Mao was though concerned at the talk of “peaceful co-existence” with West bcz felt that socialist bloc was outpacing West and should try to take advantage of the situation.

The Great Leap Begins
Mao inspired by Sov tech advances to push ahead with efforts to achieve socialism more rapidly.
Result was in Summer 1958 start of Great LEap Foward in whcih PRC would move towards modernization through rural-based industralization. MEthod of achieving high-speed growth was to use communes. Mil mobilization of population ito inc agri production

1958 Taiwan Straits Crisis & Mao’s doubling down on GLF
To mobilize pop, linked by Mao to 2nd Taiwan Strait/Offshore Islands crisis.
Attacks w/o prior consultatin w/ Sovs
Earlyt reports suggest GLF successful
Production figures inflated
First prob: indus prod took peasants away from bringing in harves t= food shortage
First half 1959: some effort by Mao to rein in GLF excess; 1959 targets made.a little more practicable

Summer 1959:; meeting at Lushan to discuss problems w/ GLF. Move towards renewing GLF with full vigor

Sino-Soviet Split and GLF Disaster
Mao suspected Peng may have been put up to challenge by Sovs, came at other problems with Sovs
Disastorous Khru-Mao summmit
Sov decisins in 1959 to cancel transfer of nuk prototype

Publication of Long Live Leninism
June 1960 Khru attack CCP
Jul withdrawal of Sov econ and tech adviser

GLF ghoing very ewrong
Num er of ser problenm: many man-made & avoidablke
45m dead


Why and with consequences did Mao reject the Soviet model of modernization?

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